Recognize an auxiliary verb when you find one.
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Every sentence must have averb. To depict doable activities, writers useaction verbs. To describe conditions, writers choose linking verbs.
Sometimes an action or condition occurs just once—bang!—& it is over.
Nate stubbed his toe.
He is miserable with pain.
Other times, the activity or condition continues over a long stretch of time, happens predictably, or occurs in relationship to other events. In these instances, a single-word verb lượt thích stubbed or is cannot accurately describe what happened, so writers use multipart verb phrases to lớn communicate what they mean. As many as four words can comprise a verb phrase.
A main or base verb indicates the type of action or condition, & auxiliary—orhelping—verbs convey the other nuances that writers want to express.
Read these three examples:
Sherylee smacked her lips as raspberry jelly dripped from the donut onto her trắng shirt.
Sherylee is alwaysdripping something.
Since Sherylee is such a klutz, sheshould have sầu been eating a cake doughnut, which would nothave stained her shirt.
In the first sentence, smacked anddripped, single-word verbs, describe the quichồng actions of both Sherylee & the raspberry jelly.
Since Sherylee has a pattern of messiness, is dripping communicates the frequency of her clumsiness. The auxiliary verbs that comprise should have been eating & would have stained express not only time relationships but also criticism of Sherylee's actions.
Below are the auxiliary verbs. You can conjugatebe, vị, and have; the modal auxiliaries, however,never change form.
|can, could, may, might, must, ought to lớn, shall, should, will, would|
Understvà the dual nature of be,bởi vì, & have sầu.
Be, bởi, and have sầu are both stand-alone verbs and auxiliary verbs. When these verbs are auxiliary, you will find them teamed with other words khổng lồ complete the verb phrase.
Compare these sentences:
Freddy is envious of Beatrice’s steaming bowl of squid eyeball stew.
Is = linking verb.
Freddy is studying Beatrice’s steaming bowl of squid eyeball stew with envy in his eyes.
Is = auxiliary verb;studying = presentparticiple completing the verb phrase.
We did our homework for Professor Long.
Did = action verb.
We are not slackers! We did prepare our homework for Professor Long.
Did = auxiliary verb;prepare = main verb completing the verb phrase.
Selena has twelve sầu orange goldfish in her aquarium.
Has = action verb.
Selemãng cầu has bought a catfish to lớn help keep the tank clean.
Has = auxiliary verb;bought = past participle completing the verb phrase.
Form progressive tenses with the auxiliary verbbe.
All progressive sầu tenses use a khung of be.
|am, is, are, was, were, being, been|
Present progressive sầu follows this pattern:
Am, Is, or Are + Present Participle
Use the present progressive tense to lớn convey an action or condition happening right now or frequently.
I am baking chocolate-broccoli muffins today.
Am = auxiliary verb;baking = presentparticiple completing theverb phrase.
Alex is sitting at the kitchen table, anticipating his first bite.
Is = auxiliary verb;sitting = present participle completing the verb phrase.
Alex must wait a while longer because the muffinsare cooling by the window.
Are = auxiliary verb;cooling = present participle completing the verb phrase.
Impatient Alex is always waiting lớn taste whatever I cook.
Is = auxiliary verb;waiting = present participle completing the verb phrase.
Past progressive follows this pattern:
Was or Were + Present Participle
Use the past progressive sầu tense khổng lồ show either 1) an action or condition that continued in the past or 2) an action or condition interrupted by another.
Naomi was hoping for an A in her organic chemistry class.
Was = auxiliary verb;hoping = presentparticiple completing theverb phrase.
Unfortunately, Naomi's lab reportswere missing the nutritional data on chocolate-broccoli muffins.
Were = auxiliary verb;missing = present participle completing the verb phrase.
While Naongươi was obsessing about her grade, Jason shared the data that she needed.
Was = auxiliary verb;obsessing = present participle completing the verb phrase.
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Future progressive follows this pattern:
Will + Be +Present Participle
Use the future progressive tense to lớn indicate an action that will continue in the future.
I will be growing broccoli in the backyard this spring.
Will,be = auxiliary verbs;growing = presentparticiple completing theverb phrase.
Soon, Alex will be eating organic chocolate-broccoli muffins!
Will,be = auxiliary verbs;eating = present participle completing the verb phrase.
Form passive voice with the auxiliary verb be.
You can make any transitive verb—that is, an action verb that can take adirect object—passive with the auxiliary verb be.
|am, is, are, was, were, being, been|
Active voice follows this pattern:
Subject + Verb +Direct Object.
Here are examples:
We licked our lips.
Frank devoured a banhỏ double cheeseburger.
Everyone envied his enjoyment.
Passive voice makes these changes:
Direct Object as the Subject + Form of Be + Past Participle +By +Subject as the Object of the Preposition.
Now read these revisions:
Our lips were licked by us.
The double babé cheeseburgerwas being devoured by Frank.
His enjoyment was envied by everyone.
Notice how wordy & clunky passive sầu voice is! Now you know why English teachers tell you khổng lồ avoid it!
Form perfect tenses with the auxiliary verb have sầu.
All perfect tenses use a khung of have.
|has, have, had, having|
Present perfect follows this pattern:
Has or Have sầu + Past Participle
Use the present perfect tense lớn convey an action or condition that began in the past but continues (or is finished) in the present.
Marge has bought earplugs lớn drown out her husband's snoring.
Has = auxiliary verb;bought = pastparticiple completing theverb phrase.
The earplugs have saved Marge's marriage lớn George.
Have = auxiliary verb;saved = past participle completing the verb phrase.
Past perfect follows this pattern:
Had + Past Participle
Use the past perfect tense khổng lồ show that one action in the past occurred before another.
Because Marge had purchased the earplugs, she no longer fantasized about smothering George with a pillow.
Had = auxiliary verb;purchased = pastparticiple completing theverb phrase.
Future perfect follows this pattern:
Will + Have +Past Participle
Use the future perfect tense to indicate that an action will be finished in the future.
This Sunday, Marge will have gotten an entire week of uninterrupted sleep.
Will,have = auxiliary verbs;gotten = past participle completing the verb phrase.
Form emphatic tenses with the auxiliary verb do.
When you use a khung of vày as an auxiliary verb, you form the emphatic tense. This tense is useful for asking questions or emphasizing an action.
|does, bởi, did, doing|
These are the patterns:
Form of Do + Main Verb
Form of Do + Subject +Main Verb ... ?
Read these samples:
I did noteat your leftover pizza!
Did = auxiliary verb;eat = main verb completing the verb phrase.
Do you alwaysaccuse the first person you see?
Do = auxiliary verb;accuse = main verb completing the verb phrase.
Doesn't the evidence point lớn Samuel, who still has a bit of blaông xã olive sầu stuck khổng lồ his front tooth?
Does = auxiliary verb;point = main verb completing the verb phrase.
Understvà the job of modal auxiliary verbs.
Modal auxiliary verbs never change form. You cannot add aned, ing, or s ending to these words. They have sầu onlyone size.
|can, could, may, might, must, ought lớn, shall, should, will, would|
You can use modal auxiliary verbs in these patterns:
Modal + Main Verb
Modal + Be +Present Participle
Modal + Have sầu +Past Participle
With modal auxiliaries, you can indicate necessity or obligation:
To thất bại her orange glow, Yvonneshould eat fewer carrots.
John must rethành viên his wife's birthday this year.
If Cecilia wants a nice lawn, sheought khổng lồ be raking the leaves.
Or you can show possibility:
Fred might nói qua his calculus homework if you offer hyên a slice of pizza.
Ann could have run the half marathuôn if she had started lớn train four months ago.
Modal auxiliaries also show willingness or ability:
Nicole will babysit your pet iguamãng cầu for a reasonable fee.
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Jason can pass chemistry this semester if he stops spending his study time at the arcade.
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